In 1992 the president of the Republic of Mozambique and the President of Renamo came together and signed the Rome General Peace Accords in Rome, Italy. The signing of this joint declaration marked the end of 17 years of civil war in Mozambique that had been ongoing since the country gained it’s independence from Portugal in 1975.
The peace agreement was a test for the United Nations because within two months after the signing of the accord there was a peacekeeping force sent to Mozambique. There they followed a plan that had previously been unsuccessful of demobilization, resettlement, and elections. They hoped that in this case a proper balance had been found that would lead to lasting peace. This initial investment of troops helped give both sides incentive to maintain the peace. Without these troops they lost a valuable deterrent.
The accords ended up lasting 21 years before finally failing due to a government attack on Renamo’s base. The longevity of the peace can be traced back to the inflow of aid into the country. After a change of leadership and a decrease in dependence on the foreign aid the relationship between the two sides started to deteriorate. Without the aid there was no longer any incentive to keep the peace and in 2013 Renamo annulled the peace accord.